Case Study: Hurricane Sandy
(Because much of this post was graciously provided by Chris Rodriguez of Brookfield Property Partners, I have not added my usual “firedogisms.” Thanks for your help, Chris!)
The most common natural disaster in the United States is a flood. In the U.S., floods kill more people each year than tornadoes, hurricanes or lightning. This week, we will focus attention on this severe weather-related disaster, because El Nino could potentially produce the types of conditions that often result in floods.
Since flooding generally occurs at or below ground level, you may be surprised to learn that there are specific flood-related dangers and steps to take to deal with floods if you work or live in a high-rise building. As a service to our subscribers and friends, this post focuses on preparations to take before, during and after flooding if you are in a high-rise commercial building.
In the third edition of his High-Rise Security and Fire/Life Safety, Vice President of Universal Protection Service, Geoff Craighead, writes this about flood safety as it relates to high-rise buildings:
“Torrential rain, melting snow, a tsunami or a hurricane may produce too much water for land, rivers and flood control panels to handle and therefore results in serious flooding that will impact an entire area, including high-rise buildings. Floods also can occur as a result of a public water main pipe break or a reservoir failing.
Subterranean parking garages located beneath high-rise buildings can become flooded with water. This can result in damage to vehicles and substantial damage to elevator systems because of water cascading into elevator shafts. Building operations can be paralyzed for days as a result of cleanup of impacted areas and repair of damaged equipment. Also, a severe landslide could result in the collapse of a building.”
Our friend and client, Chris Rodriguez, is the Director of Security for Brookfield Property Partners at One New York Plaza. He was onsite at that location in 2012 during Hurricane Sandy. Chris stayed on the scene for days, and was kind enough to provide us with the steps he and his team took before, during and after the hurricane. We chose to include excerpts from his notes despite their length, because we believe it provides great insight into a real-world scenario relative to managing and recovering from flooding in a high-rise commercial building.
- Secured the building perimeter and all entrances to the building, 12 hours prior to the expected landfall of the storm.
- Protected all street-level entrances with sandbags.
- Advised tenants to remove their personal vehicles from the subterranean parking garage.
- Monitored perimeter surveillance as well as live television broadcasts.
- Brought in an evening security platoon prior to the shutdown of public transportation systems.
- Advised personnel to be prepared for an extended stay.
- Reviewed the Emergency Action Plan.
- Double-checked the security cache of radios, flashlights and backup batteries.
- Instructed critical operation staff personnel to don high-visibility clothing that identified them as “security, engineers, or life safety personnel.”
- Made sure that engineers checked and tested critical building emergency utility systems, days prior to impact.
- Equipped building personnel on duty with walkie–talkies.
- Maintained perimeter surveillance from the elevated plaza level.
- Continued to monitor local TV news and weather.
- Upon notification that the sandbag “levee” had been breached by the incoming tidal surge, instituted the Emergency Action Plan.
- Gave evacuation orders over the public address system for all areas below the lobby level.
- When water started entering the loading dock and other areas of the building from the street level, parked elevators on upper floors.
- As the three sub – surface levels of the building continued to flood, one final check was conducted.
- When emergency power and lighting was lost throughout the building and downtown area, made sure all personnel were accounted for.
- Ordered everyone in the building to assemble at a refuge point.
- Continued to monitor the rising flood waters.
- After the tidal surge appeared to have peaked, personnel “hunkered down” for the night.
- The engineers on duty threw all the breakers connecting the service from the sub-cellar to the upper floors, which proved to be a vital maneuver contributing to the rapid recovery of power to the upper floors.
- By daybreak, the tidal surge had receded. The streets were dry but the damage was done. All three sub-levels of the building were under water.
- The building was officially closed to all tenants.
- All civilians remaining in the building were evacuated to allow for a damage assessment and to address safety concerns.
- Perimeter patrols were resumed to ward off inquisitive sightseers and maintain the integrity of the building. Manual sign-in was mandatory and enforced.
- The building Life Fire Safety system was non-functioning. So a fire guard patrol was established for all 50 floors.
- Everyone was required to have a flashlight and walkie-talkie at all times.
- Personal cellphones were the sole means of contact with the outside world.
- Emergency generators were brought in to supply limited power to critical areas of the building.
- Security Supervisors contacted all off-duty personnel to inquire about their personal wellbeing and potential availability to relieve peers. (The personnel onsite from the evening of the storm remained on-site for four days before relief was available from off-duty personnel).
- Food vendors in the area of the city with power delivered three hot meals, per person, each day.
- Security measures were addressed as the first sub-level street entrances were compromised and exposed by the receding water.
- New security posts were established to maintain a secure environment.
- The building remained closed to tenants for one business week, which is when sufficient emergency generators were in place to light stairways and restore the Life Fire Safety system.
- On week two, the building was partially opened only to Critical Information Personnel for certain high-profile tenants’ data centers.
- Security teams supplied supplemental officers to assist the newly established posts deemed necessary to protect tenants’ assets during their absence.
Chris had this to say about his experience: “No matter how much you prepare, you will likely never be ‘totally prepared’ for an event of historical magnitude. A storm the likes of Hurricane Sandy strikes only about once every 100 years. So the road to recovery is much longer than the avenue of destruction. Patience is indeed a virtue.”
Here are a few of the other lessons Chris says he learned:
- A three-foot levee of sandbags does not standup to a 12- foot storm surge.
- You probably will not have sufficient resources to handle a large-scale emergency and safely equip all personnel.
- An easily assessable cache of equipment and resources must be maintained off-site, like radios, food, water, extra uniforms, toiletries, flashlights, etc.
- Certain critical building resources should be relocated to upper floors, where feasible.
- A team of supervisors trained and experienced in handling emergency situations begets a staff of efficient, disciplined and task-oriented personnel.
- Personnel including supervisors must be able to accept and adapt to modified working conditions and hours.
- Supervisors must be able to execute and display confidence in new and revised policies.
- It will take some time to get back to “business as usual.”
FEMA has prepared a free, comprehensive 12-page PDF booklet that goes into great detail about flood preparation and recovery. We hope the FEMA resources and this blog post will motivate you to do whatever it takes to #BeSafe in floods as well as every other type of emergency…particularly if you live or work in a high-rise building! A convenient and affordable way to make sure you are prepared for disasters and emergencies of virtually every kind is to subscribe to the RJWestmore Training System by Universal Fire/Life Safety Services, which has been designed to help improve and save lives. For more information about our system, or to subscribe, click here.